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  柬埔寨制衣业最低工资谈判各执一词

  9月14日,一年一度的柬埔寨纺织、服装和鞋类行业最低工资谈判再度启动。该机制自2013年建立以来,已经将行业最低工资由每月61美元提升至2021年的每月192美元,涨幅明显。由于该行业是柬埔寨最大的出口行业,雇佣工人超过70万,谈判结果会对其他行业产生示范效应,因此每次谈判都引起当地社会广泛关注。

  2020年以来,受新冠肺炎疫情冲击,柬埔寨制衣制鞋业面临国外订单下降和国内封锁隔离的双重考验,数百家企业停工,一些企业更是关门倒闭,影响超过10万名工人。2020年7月份,柬埔寨制衣厂商会等多家商会曾发表联合声明称,已有约400家服装鞋类企业以及旅行用品企业停产,波及约15万工人。

  虽然政府和企业为停业工人按月发放补贴,一定程度上缓解了工人们的生活压力,但如果经济形势不好转,这种方式将无法长期维持。好在欧美市场需求随着新冠疫苗的问世而逐渐反弹,柬国内工厂也在政府的大力防控和大规模疫苗接种之后陆续开工。近期更是由于周边邻国疫情再起,不少订单流向柬埔寨,一些工厂甚至开始考虑扩充生产线。但据柬商业部统计,今年前8个月出口仍同比下降5.3%,纺织类出口仍呈下降趋势。

  复杂的形势使得参与谈判的三方给出了方向不同的薪资方案。工会要求增加22.2美元,上涨至每月214.2美元。企业方提议减薪8.6美元,下降至每月183.4美元。政府则提议将最低工资从目前的每月192美元微降至每月191.9美元。本次会议上,各方阐明立场,并未达成一致。

  柬埔寨2018年批准的《最低工资法》明确,最低工资将通盘考量家庭状况、通货膨胀、生活成本、生产效率、国家竞争力、劳动力市场以及行业盈利能力7个因素。根据记者看到的材料,劳资双方在多个因素的判断上截然不同。例如,在生活成本方面,资方认为无变化,劳方认为有4%的增幅;在生产效率方面,资方认为下降了0.75%,劳方认为上升了2.6%;在国家竞争力方面,资方认为衰退了5.25%,劳方则认为上升了1%。各项综合下来,企业方认为工资应该下调4.5%,工会则认为应上调11.6%,差距巨大。

  柬埔寨劳工联合会主席艾吞表示,工会方面的提议是基于生活成本等因素的变化情况作出的。全国工会联合会主席法萨利表示,他对这一结果表示乐观。他认为虽然新冠肺炎疫情仍在持续,但出口似乎已经有所改善,而工人仍在面临巨大困难。柬埔寨联盟工会主席杨素朴表示,无法确定最低工资是否上涨,但谈判必须进行。目前工人工资太低,无法满足基本的日常开支。对于劳方的诉求,艾吞表示:“这个数字来自我们的调查结果,但它也不是定案。根据辩论的情况,我们可能进行下调。”

  柬埔寨制衣厂商会秘书长卢启健表示,除通货膨胀之外,其他因素都不变或出现下降,因此最低工资应该有所调降,而且各种防疫措施也增加了企业成本。柬埔寨中国商会纺织企业协会会长何恩佳表示,为控制疫情所采取的封锁和隔离措施,导致上半年出口下降,尤其是对欧出口。近期,由于越南和缅甸的部分订单转移至柬埔寨,缓解了柬埔寨淡季缺单的情况。总体而言,今年比往年淡季略好一些,但由于接单能力不同,各家工厂状况也是苦乐不均。何恩佳表示,目前柬埔寨的最低工资标准已与越南河内、胡志明等区域基本持平,更超过缅甸、孟加拉等国。

  在柬开设印花厂为制衣厂提供配套服务的郭某表示,今年制衣行业状况有所改善,除新增订单外,还有不少历史积压订单正在加紧赶工,一些工厂甚至出现了“爆单”情况。但他也表示,如果将最低工资调增至每月214.2美元,必将对整个行业造成巨大冲击。

  柬埔寨唯一的上市制衣企业、昆州国际首席执行官陈聪淇表示,今年第二季度企业因封城而停产,对产值造成约5%的拖累。企业及时采取措施,通过提升生产效率,增加合理加班,提高物流效率等方式,预计2021年全年出口值将与去年持平。对于新一轮的最低工资谈判,陈聪淇表示,公司一直将员工视为公司最重要的资产,公司成立至今,没有裁员、减薪或放无薪假。但柬埔寨经济受到疫情重创,他希望股东、客户和员工共克时艰,维持目前192美元的最低工资水平。

  柬埔寨最低工资谈判由工会、企业和政府三方共同参与,历史上还从未有过调降的经历。即使在疫情暴发的2020年,最低工资也微涨了2美元。除工资外,政府还要求企业提供小额的交通和房租补贴,以及全勤奖金、工龄津贴等,以体现政府对工人群体的关心,争取民众支持。明年乡选在即,此时降低工资是明显的“政治不正确”,可能性很低。但随着工资的连年上涨,确实已影响到柬埔寨制衣业的竞争力。

  显然,柬埔寨要解决的不是简单的涨不涨工资的问题,而是如何使经济结构更加平衡,出口产品更加多元,如何向价值链上游攀爬的问题。与此同时,生活成本不断上升,工资无法明显改善工人生活状况也是现实。如何使民众在国家的快速发展中有切实的获得感,显然还需要政府在工资之外,出台更多配套政策支持。(经济日报驻金边记者 张 保)

【编辑:卞立群】
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